Definition of Gel Electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a method through which macromolecules i.e. DNA, RNA and proteins are separated on the basis of their sizes. The samples which are to be separated are loaded into the wells located at one end of the gel. An electric current is applied that helps in moving through the gel. Consider that the sample used in gel electrophoresis is DNA.


The DNA is a negatively charged molecule hence they move towards the positive electrode, the cathode. All the fragments of the DNA constitute negative charge but those who have smaller sizes tend to move faster through the gel. This gel is then stained with a dye that gets bound to the fragments. In this way, the bands can be seen.


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