Definition of Homologous Recombination

Homologous recombination is the process in which the identical DNA segments are exchanged between the homologous chromosomes. It can also be stated as the process in which the two strands having a long region of similar base sequences tend to exchange their genetic material. It takes place in the bacteria, some viruses and eukaryotic organisms.


This process is employed quite frequently in the technique of genetic engineering. In a eukaryotic cell, this genetic recombination occurs during the crossing over of the chromosomes in the process of meiosis. Hence, it helps in increasing the genetic variation and in repairing the breaks present in the strands of DNA.


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