Definition of Monosaccharides
Monosaccharides are simple sugars that act as building blocks of higher carbohydrates i.e. disaccharides and polysaccharides. They have aldo and keto groups present in them hence termed as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones. In an aqueous solution, the monosaccharides form a cyclic structure that is called hemi-acetal and hemi-ketal. These cyclic species are crystalline in nature and soluble in water. The number of carbon atoms in the chain classifies the monosaccharides as trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, and heptoses.
Examples of Monosaccharides:
Include glyceraldehyde, glucose, fructose, etc. The general formula of monosaccharide is CnH2nO2. The simple sugars are generally colorless, soluble in water, have crystalline structures, and sweet taste.