Juana Curry and William Moore, customers of AvMed Insurance, took

Juana Curry and William Moore, customers of AvMed Insurance, took care to protect their private information. They destroyed mail that contained sensitive data and avoided uploading any such informatio...

At the University of Arizona, the Epsilon Epsilon chapter of Delta

At the University of Arizona, the Epsilon Epsilon chapter of Delta Tau Delta fraternity gave a welcoming party for new members. The fraternity’s officers knew that the majority of its members were und...

Helen Palsgraf was waiting on a railroad platform. As a train

Helen Palsgraf was waiting on a railroad platform. As a train began to leave the station, a man carrying a package ran to catch it. He jumped aboard but looked unsteady, so a guard on the car reached...

Biswell operated a pawn shop and had a license to sell "

Biswell operated a pawn shop and had a license to sell "sporting weapons". Treasury agents demanded to inspect Biswell's locked storeroom. The officials claimed that, the Gun Control Act of 1968 gave...

The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) instructed

The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) instructed the FDA to issue regulations requiring cigarette packaging to contain graphics depicting the negative consequences of smoking....

Christianne Carafano is a film actor under the stage name Chase Masterson

Christianne Carafano is a film actor under the stage name Chase Masterson. Someone posted a profile of her on the Matchmaker.com Internet dating service. This phony profile stated that Carafano was “l...

Duke Power used a high school completion requirement and an intelligence test

Duke Power used a high school completion requirement and an intelligence test in hiring and promotion. The result was that fewer minority applicants qualified for jobs at Duke Power. Griggs sued under...

When they applied for life insurance from Farm Bureau Life Insurance Company

When they applied for life insurance from Farm Bureau Life Insurance Company ("Farm Bureau") in 1999 Wyoming resident Gary Pehle and his wife Renna did not know they were infected with the Human Immun...

Hardingham was a recovering alcoholic. Defendant United Counseling Service (UCS

Hardingham was a recovering alcoholic. Defendant United Counseling Service (UCS) gave him a job as an emergency services counselor. Halpin, UCS's executive director, learned that Hardingham was again...

Prosenjit Poddar killed Tatiana Tarasoff. Tatiana's parents claimed that two months

Prosenjit Poddar killed Tatiana Tarasoff. Tatiana's parents claimed that two months earlier Poddar had confided his intention to kill Tatiana to Dr. Lawrence Moore, a psychologist employed by the Univ...