Definition of Gabriel Synthesis

Gabriel​ Synthesis is a chemical reaction that is responsible for the conversion of alkyl halides (haloalkanes) into primary amines. This reaction commonly uses potassium phthalimide as a reagent in it. In this reaction, the sulfonamides and imides are first alkylated and then are deprotonated.


In this way, the amines are obtained. Ammonia is not a suitable route to amines, hence phthalimide anion is used as a substitute for H2​ ​N -​. Other reagents such as sodium salt of saccharin and di-tert-butyl-iminodicarboxylate can act on secondary haloalkanes and hydrolyze them more easily resultantly from secondary amines. 

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