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Question: Draw a mechanism for each of the

Draw a mechanism for each of the following transformations:
Draw a mechanism for each of the following transformations:

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> Suggest an efficient synthesis for the following transformation: он

> For each of the following compounds, determine the multiplicity of each signal in the expected 1H NMR spectrum: (a) (b) (c) (d)

> Suggest an efficient synthesis for each of the following transformations: (a) (b)

> Compound A reacts with one equivalent of H2 in the presence of a catalyst to give methylcyclohexane. Compound A can be formed upon treatment of 1-bromo-1-methylcyclohexane with sodium methoxide. What is the structure of compound A?

> Propose a mechanism for each of the following reactions: OH H,0* (a) OH (b) Br (c) Br HBr (d)

> Predict the major product(s) for each of the following reactions: ? 1) вн, - THF 2) H,02, NaOH ? 1) RCO,H 2) H,0 HBr Bl2 ? ? H2. Pt

> Predict the major product(s) for each of the following reactions: ? 1) Hg(OAc), H,0 2) NABH, -? NaOH, cold HCI Brz, H0 ? H2, Pt ?

> At high temperatures, alkanes can undergo dehydrogenation to produce alkenes. For example: This reaction is used industrially to prepare ethylene while simultaneously serving as a source of hydrogen gas. Explain why dehydrogenation only works at high te

> Compound 3 below, called mycoepoxydiene, has been isolated from a marine fungus and has been shown to possess anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. It contains an unusual oxygen-bridged cyclooctadiene skeleton. Both enantiomers of this compound w

> Identify the reagents you would use to accomplish each of the following transformations: (a) (b) レー人 (c) (d)

> Bioethanol, ethanol produced by fermentation of sugars, is a desirable starting material for chemical synthesis since it comes from renewable resources. Identify the reagents you would use to accomplish the following industrial transformation that conver

> Identify the reagents you would use to accomplish each of the following transformations: он но (a) (b) он Br но En (c) (d) "OH

> In the human body, the amino acid phenylalanine is normally processed by an enzyme that converts it to cinnamic acid. Infants with phenylketonuria (PKU) have a defective enzyme, resulting in a buildup of phenylalanine that can damage a developing brain.

> AZT was the first HIV treatment to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. HIV may become AZT-resistant over time, so new drugs are always being sought. As part of this effort, compound 2 was made from compound 1 and was shown to have modest act

> Identify the reagents that you would use to accomplish each of the following transformations: Br En (a) (b) Br (c) OH En (e) (f) Br Br | (g) (h)

> Compound A has the molecular formula C5H10. Hydroboration-oxidation of compound A produces a pair of enantiomers, compounds B and C. When treated with HBr, compound A is converted into compound D, which is a tertiary alkyl bromide. When treated with O3 f

> Determine whether syn dihydroxylation of trans-2-butene will yield the same products as anti dihydroxylation of cis-2-butene. Draw the products in each case and compare them.

> Syn dihydroxylation of the compound below yields two products. Draw both products and describe their stereoisomeric relationship (i.e., are they enantiomers or diastereomers?): KMNO4, NaOH ? Cold

> Predict the products of each of the following reactions: 1) вн, - THF 2) H,0, NaOH ? ? PI (a) (Ь) ? :? 1) CH,CO,H 1) OsO, 2) H,0 2) NaHSO,H,O (c) (d) ? HBr ? (е) (f) 1) RCO,H 2) H,0 ? 1) вн, - THF 2) H,O, NaOH ? (g) (h) Оs0, (catalytic) NMO (i)

> Synthetic chemists utilize a large variety of strategies for the synthesis of natural products. Indeed, new strategies are constantly being developed, many of which are inspired by (and mimic) the synthetic pathways employed by nature. As part of the dev

> Identify the structure of the starting alkene in each of the following cases: C3H14 1) Og C10H16 1) O, (a) 2) DMS 2) DMS (b) (c) 1) O 2) DMS

> Predict the products that are expected when each of the following alkenes is treated with ozone followed by DMS: (а) (Ь) (с) (d) (е) (f)

> Predict the product(s) for each of the following reactions. In each case, make sure to consider the number of chiral centers being formed. ? KMno NaOH Oso, (catalytic) NMO 1) Oso, 2) NaHSO, / H,0 ? Cold (al (b) (c) ? Os0, (catalytic) ? ? KMNO,, NaOH

> A compound with the molecular formula C4H6O2 has the following 1H NMR spectrum. Determine the number of protons giving rise to each signal. Proton NMR 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2,5 2.0 1.5 ppm 18.92 Integration Values 19.77 19.46

> Compound A and compound B both have the molecular formula C6H12. Both compounds produce epoxides when treated with a peroxy acid (RCO3H). a. The epoxide resulting from compound A was treated with aqueous acid (H3O+) and the resulting diol had no chiral

> Under acid-catalyzed conditions, epoxides can be opened by a variety of nucleophiles other than water, such as alcohols. In such a case, the nucleophile will generally attack at the more substituted position. Using this information, predict the products

> Predict the products that are expected when each of the following alkenes is treated with a peroxy acid (RCO3H) followed by aqueous acid: (f)

> When trans-1-phenylpropene is treated with bromine, some syn addition is observed. Explain why the presence of a phenyl group causes a loss of stereospecificity. Br Br + En + En Br Br trans-1-Phenylpropene anti addition products (83%) syn addition pr

> Bromonium ions can be captured by nucleophiles other than water. Predict the products of each of the following reactions: ? Bra EINH, ? HO. (a) (b)

> Predict the major product(s) that are expected when each of the following alkenes is treated with Br2/H2O: (a) (b) (c) (d)

> Predict the major product(s) for each of the following reactions: „I - ? , - ? ? ? Br (b) (c)

> Compound 1 has been shown to be a useful precursor in the synthesis of natural products. In principle, four stereoisomers are possible when this compound is subjected to catalytic hydrogenation. Draw these stereoisomers and describe their relationships:

> Predict the product(s) for each of the following reactions: ? ? Ni Ni (a) (Ь) (c) ? H2 Pt Pd (d) (e)

> α-Pinene can be isolated from pine resin and is a primary constituent of turpentine (paint thinner). Both enantiomers of α-pinene are naturally occurring. To determine the enantiomeric excess (% ee) of α-pinene i

> A compound with the molecular formula C10H10O has the following 1 H NMR spectrum. Determine the number of protons giving rise to each signal. Proton NMR 10 6 5 1 ppm 17.1 87.1 18.7 Integration Values 51.1

> Predict the product(s) for each of the following transformations:

> Compound A has the molecular formula C5H10. Hydroborationoxidation of compound A produces 2-methylbutan-1-ol. Draw the structure of compound A:

> Below are several examples of hydroboration-oxidation. In each case, consider the expected regioselectivity and then draw the product:

> In the first step of oxymercuration-demercuration, nucleophiles other than water may be used. Predict the product for each of the following cases, in which a nucleophile other than water is used.

> Predict the product for each reaction, and predict the products if an acid-catalyzed hydration had been performed rather than an oxymercuration-demercuration:

> If an alkene is protonated and the solvent is an alcohol rather than water, a reaction takes place that is very similar to acid-catalyzed hydration, but in the second step of the mechanism the alcohol functions as a nucleophile instead of water. Draw a m

> Draw a mechanism for each of the following transformations:

> Identify whether you would use dilute sulfuric acid or concentrated sulfuric acid to achieve each of the following transformations. In each case, explain your choice.

> In each of the following cases, identify the alkene that is expected to be more reactive toward acid-catalyzed hydration.

> Carbocation rearrangements during hydrohalogenation reactions can involve shifts of carbon atoms other than a methyl group. For example, the addition of HBr to compound 1 leads to carbocation 2, which rearranges to carbocation 3, before being converted i

> A compound with the molecular formula C5H10O2 has the following 1 H NMR spectrum. Determine the number of protons giving rise to each signal.

> Draw a mechanism for each of the following transformations:

> Predict the products for each of the following reactions. Note: in some cases, the reaction produces a new chiral center, while in other cases, no new chiral center is formed.

> The bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane ring system, highlighted in compound 3, is found in several natural products, including sabinene, a compound partially responsible for the flavor of ground black pepper. One method for preparing this ring system involves the conv

> Identify the reagents that you would use to achieve each of the following transformations:

> Draw the expected major product for each of the following reactions:

> Reserpine can be isolated from the extracts of the Indian snakeroot Rauwolfia serpentina and has been used in the effective treatment of mental disorders. R. B. Woodward employed the following reaction sequence in his classic 1958 synthesis of reserpine.

> Propose a plausible mechanism for the following transformation, which was used as the key step in the formation of the natural product heliol.

> 9-Borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN) is a reagent commonly used in the hydroboration of alkynes (Section 10.7), but it can also be employed in reactions with alkenes. The following table provides the relative rates of hydroboration (using 9-BBN) for a vari

> The following table provides relative rates of oxymercuration for a variety of alkenes with mercuric acetate. Provide structural explanations for the trend observed in the relative rates of reactivity. Alkenes…………………………Relative Reactivity CH2C(CH3)(CH2C

> For each of the following compounds, identify the expected chemical shift for each type of proton:

> For each of the following compounds, determine whether the two protons shown in red are homotopic, enantiotopic, or diastereotopic:

> John Dewey is the husband of Mary Dewey. He is also the CEO of a large public relations firm. Mary recently filed for divorce, alleging mental brutality, and is asking for half of John's and the couple's assets. In the six months prior to being

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