Definition of Gene Cloning
Gene cloning is the production of a large number of copies of a gene by employing molecular biology techniques. The cloning is done by the introduction of a target gene into a plasmid which is a circular piece of DNA. The DNA is cut with the help of restriction enzyme and is joined with the plasmid with DNA ligase. This plasmid is then introduced into the bacterial cell by the process of transformation.
These bacterial cells are allowed to make more plasmid DNAs and to express the gene and form the final product that is a protein. This protein is then harvested from the bacterial cells and is purified. The clones of genes are also produced in labs by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).