wwww -Protein of interest The goal is to determine where in the genome this protein binds. Add formaldehyde to crosslink protein to DNA. Lyse the cells. Sonicate DNA into small pieces Add antibodies that recognize the protein of interest. The antibodies are bound to heavy beads. After the antibodies bind to the protein of Interest, the sample is subjected to centrifugation. ww Protein of interestN bound to DNA and to an antibody Antibody against protein of interest - Pellet Вead Collect complexes in pellet. Add chemical that breaks the crossilinks to remove the protein. Conduct PCR using primers to a specific DNA region. Covalently attach DNA linkers to the ends of the DNA - Linker Conduct PCR using primers that are complementary to the linkers. Incorporate fluorescently labeled nucleotides during PCR. If PCR amplifies the DNA, the protein of interest was bound to the DNA region that is flanked by the primers. Denature DNA and hybridize to a microarray. See Figure 24.1. Fluorescently labeled spots identify sites in the genome where the protein of interest binds.
> Two techniques commonly used to study the expression patterns of genes that play a role in development are Northern blotting and in situ hybridization. As described in Chapter 21, Northern blotting is used to detect RNA that is transcribed from a particu
> Researchers have used the cloning methods described in Chapter 21 to clone the bicoid gene and express large amounts of the Bicoid protein. The Bicoid protein was then injected into the posterior end of a zygote immediately after fertilization. What phen
> In this chapter, we considered a computer program that can translate a DNA sequence into a polypeptide sequence. A researcher has a sequence file that contains the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide and runs a program that is opposite to the program de
> Discuss why it is useful to search a database to identify sequences that are homologous to a newly determined sequence.
> What is a motif? Why is it useful for computer programs to identify functional motifs within amino acid sequences?
> Discuss the bioinformatics approaches that can be used to identify a protein-encoding gene.
> Describe the two general types of protein microarrays. What are their possible applications?
> How does population size affect genetic drift?
> What are two reasons why a selection limit is reached in which artificial selection no longer has an effect?
> Why is feedback inhibition an advantage to the bacterium?
> Discuss the types of traits that have been subjected to selective breeding in this example.
> What are the similarities and differences between natural selection and selective breeding?
> What are the two ways that strains A and B differ?
> Explain how gene number and environmental variation affect the overlaps between phenotypes and different genotypes.
> What does it mean to say that these alleles are additive?
> What percentage of individuals fall more than 2 SDs above the mean?
> How does inbreeding affect the likelihood that recessive traits will be expressed? Explain.
> What is happening at the bottleneck? Describe the effect of genetic drift during the bottleneck.
> Is height a discontinuous (discrete) trait, or does it follow a continuum?
> In general, why does stabilizing selection decrease genetic diversity?
> What is an advantage of gene regulation?
> Does this form of natural selection favor polymorphism? Explain why or why not.
> Explain how negative frequency-dependent selection works.
> Explain why the HbS allele is prevalent in certain regions even though it is detrimental in the homozygous condition.
> In this example, is directional selection promoting genetic diversity? Explain.
> With respect to this form of natural selection, explain the meaning of the word directional.
> Are polymorphisms common or rare in natural populations?
> What does the term local population mean?
> What is an ortholog?
> What is a cell lineage?
> Explain how the physical arrangements of the homeotic genes correlate with their effects on phenotype.
> What would be the expected result if gene A was inactive?
> Describe the difference in the effects of a mutation in a gap gene versus one in a pair-rule gene.
> Where are maternal-effect gene products made first? Where do they go?
> What is the normal function of the Bicoid protein?
> Describe the orientations of the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes.
> How does genetics play a role in development?
> Why is it important to maintain the correct number of stem cells in the growing tip?
> At which stage of development does the Id protein function? Why is its function important?
> Briefly describe how the HoxC-6 gene affects vertebrate development.
> Which of these mechanisms involve(s) diffusible morphogens?
> What are advantages and disadvantages of these two methods? From figure 22.15: Liposome -DNA canying the gene of interest Retrovirus- RNA genome contains gene of interest RNA genome Target cell Target cell DNA-liposome complex is taken into the targ
> What are two common applications of DNA fingerprinting?
> Which portion of a T-DNA vector is transferred to a plant?
> Is this a sequencing by synthesis method? Explain.
> Why is this technique used?
> Explain why the sequences of these two genes are similar to each other but not identical.
> What is the purpose of tandem mass spectrometry?
> Explain how these mechanisms affect protein diversity.
> What is an advantage and a disadvantage of this repair system?
> Which of the three Mut proteins is responsible for ensuring that the mismatched base in the newly made daughter strand is the one that is removed?
> Explain why cuts are made on both sides of the damaged region of the DNA.
> Describe two differences among these chromosomes.
> How does the binding of a protein to DNA influence the ability of DNase I to cleave the DNA?
> Explain how this experiment provides information regarding the expression of genes. From Figure 24.1: A mixture of 3 different types of MRNA A portion of a DNA microarray. Each spot contains single-stranded DNA from a specific gene. A Add reverae tr
> If a cell cannot make any Rb protein, how will this affect the function of E2F?
> Why does this translocation cause leukemia rather than cancer in a different tissue type, such as the lung?
> How would a mutation that prevents the Ras protein from hydrolyzing GTP affect the cell-signaling pathway in Figure 25.11? From Figure 25.11: EGF receptor EGF Ras GRB2 Ras Raf-1 GTP GDP GRB2 Raf-1 GDP MEK МЕК МАРК MAPKEB АРК Exposure to EGF Jun Fos
> Where does the prion protein come from?
> Explain the connection between the founder and the G8-C marker.
> What is a haplotype?
> What feature(s) of this pedigree indicate(s) X-linked recessive inheritance? Prince Albert Queen Victoria Victoria King Edward VII Leopold, Duke of Beatrice Albany Alice of Empress Frederick Hesse King Alfonso XII of Spain Frederick William King Geor
> What feature(s) of this pedigree indicate(s) dominant inheritance? I-1 I-I II-2 Il-3 II-4 I1-5 Il-6 Il-7 III-1 III-2 III-3 III-4
> With regard to phylogenetic trees, how is a molecular clock useful?
> Does this figure illustrate a strength or a drawback of using morphological traits to establish species? From Figure 29.1: (a) Frogs of the same species Ameri Eastern meadowlark (Stumella magna) Western meadowlark Western meadowlark (Sturnela neglec
> Christmas and Thanksgiving, two beloved traditional holidays, share many similarities concerning the gifts and memories they provide to thousands every year, and yet starkly contrast one another in their worldwide appreciation. Both holidays represent th
> The wildlife department has been feeding a special food to rainbow trout fingerlings in a pond. Based on a large number of observations, the distribution of trout weights is normally distributed with a mean of 402.7 grams and a standard deviation 8.8 gra
> Amid students in a certain Capstone group, 60% have taken Linear Algebra, 50% have taken Calculus 3, and 30% have taken both. What portion of the student? A. Did not take Calculus 3? B. Did not take either Linear Algebra or Calculus 3? C. Took Linear Alg
> Which of the following statements is always true? Select one: a. -1 ≤ P(Ei) ≤1 b. P(A) = 1 - P(Ac) c. P(A) + P(B) = 1 d. åP ≤ 1
> Draw the product of the allowing reaction between a ketone and an alcohol. Include hydrogen atoms in your structural formula. + 1 mole equiv. но-снз-сн H* H3C Tools
> Determine the reactions at the supports. 5-13. Determine the reactions at the supports 900 N 00 N/m -3m Prob. 5-13
> Two light bulbs are 1.0m apart. From what distance can these light bulbs be marginally resolved by a small telescope with a 5.0cm -diameter objective lens? Assume that the lens is limited only by diffraction and λ =600nm.
> Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. 3 ft 6 ft 3 ft Prob. 7-85 86. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. 6 kN/m 3 kN/m 3 m - Prob. 7-86 87. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam.
> Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown. 5 kN/M 2m
> Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. 1. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. 2. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. 20 kN 40 kN/m 150 kN - m 3. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. 4 kip/ſt 12 ft 12 ft
> The average density of the human body is 985 kg/m3, and the typical density of seawater is about 1020 kg/m3. a) Draw a free-body diagram of a human body floating in seawater and determine what percentage of the body's volume is submerged. b) The average
> The average density of the human body is 985 kg/m3, and the typical density of seawater is about 1020 kg/m3. (a) Determine what percentage of the body's volume is submerged. (b) The average density of the human body, after maximum inhalation of air, chan
> 1. An empty tank is slowly filled with air. Water is then added to the tank, decreasing the volume for the air in the tank. The temperature remains constant. What happens to the pressure? a. The pressure increases. b. The pressure doesn't change. c. Th
> Two situations involving objects and diverging lenses are given. Draw the three principle rays for these two situations. Also draw the image on the ray diagram where the three principal rays converging and then describe the image (i.e. relative location,
> Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam 378 CHAPTER 7 INTERNAL FORCES 7-79. *7-76. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. toddns 15 kN 10 kN/m 00. 20 kN m 2 m Prob. 7-76 7–77. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. *7-80.
> Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. 380 CHAPTER 7 INTERNAL FORCES *7-88. Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. 7-91. I 3 kN w/N19 A 1.5 m Prob. 7-88
> A demethanizer tower is used in a refinery to separate natural gas from a light hydrocarbon gas mixture stream (1) having the composition listed below. However, initial calculations show that there is considerable energy wastage in the process. A propose
> What unit is represented by (a) joule per coulomb, (b) coulomb per second, and (c) watt-second?
> Predict the product of the following reaction and include hydrogen atoms in your structure: H H,SO, H-O H3C CH3
> The average density of the human body is 985 kg/m3 and the typical density of seawater is about 1020 kg/m3. When floating in seawater, approximately 97% of the body's volume is submerged. The Dead Sea is the world's saltiest large body of water. Its aver
> I want business case for Red zuma project which is form Business management book .
> It's project form business management book. The project name is Red zuma. Red Zuma Project (page 646) Each project asks you to apply what you learn each week to create specific project management documents utilizing the trial version of MS Project Profe
> A company opting to boost its sales of branded footwear by offering buyers 500 models/styles to choose from should consider reducing the $15 million annual costs for production run setup costs associated with producing 500 models/styles at each productio
> Which one of the following actions is most likely to result in higher production costs per branded pair at one of your company's production facilities? a. Increasing the S/Q rating of branded pairs produced from 4.5 stars to 5.5 stars b. Increasing tot
> Is linear programming only used in conditions of certainty?
> Flawed ways to pursue competitive efforts that will successfully differentiate a company's branded footwear from the branded offerings of rival companies include a. failing to produce branded footwear with an S/Q rating that is the highest in the indust
> Flawed ways to pursue competitive efforts that will successfully differentiate a branded footwear from the branded offerings of rival companies include company's a. failing to produce branded footwear with an S/Q rating that is at least two-stars above
> Flawed ways to pursue competitive efforts that will successfully differentiate a company's branded footwear from the branded offerings of rival companies include a. failing to produce branded footwear with at least a 9-star S/Q rating b. overspending o
> If a management team wishes to boost the company's stock price, then it should consider pursuing actions to meet or beat the annual investor-expected EPS targets, raising the company's a. dividend each year by $.30 per share or more, and repurchasing sh
> 1. Which one of the following is not an effective or attractively profitable way to try to reduce total production costs per pair at a particular production facility? a. Actions to operate the company's production facilities at maximum overtime, perhaps
> If a management team wishes to boost the company's stock price then it should consider actions to. a. Spend additional money on corporate social responsibility and corporate citizenship. b. boost the company’s net income and eps and also to repurchase s
> Managerial efforts to boost a company's stock price should entail such actions as a. spending amounts on corporate citizenship and social responsibility that are above the industry average boosting the company's dividend payout ratio to more than 100%, a
> Pursuing a strategy of social responsibility and corporate citizenship has the effect of boosting the company's EPS, ROE, and stock price whenever the company's spending for socially responsible activities is the highest in the industry. helps increase
> The benefits of pursuing a strategy of social responsibility and corporate citizenship include a. the enhanced profitability that results when a company opts to spend money on socially responsible activities. b. the positive impact that such a strategy
> Based on the industry-low, industry-average, and industry-high values for the benchmarked data that appear on p. 7 of each issue of the FIR, which one of the following would be the strongest and most valid signal that one or more elements of a company's