Definition of Ribonucleic Acid

Ribonucleic acid is a complex molecule that has a high molecular weight and it is involved in the synthesis of proteins (translation). The genetic information in some viruses is carried by ribonucleic acid. RNA is a polymer of ribonucleotides which are formed by three components i.e. a ribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.


The nitrogenous bases present in the structure of RNA are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. The sugar-phosphate backbone of the RNA is formed by the phosphodiester linkages. The RNA molecule is typically single-stranded but it can form helices due to the intrachain pairing of bases. There are three types of RNA that are present in almost all organisms i.e. messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA.


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