Explain how water is an amphoteric substance. Write the chemical equation for the autoionization of water. Write the expression for the equilibrium constant, Kw, for this reaction. What values does Kw have at 25 0C? What are [H+] and [OH-] in pure water at 25 0C? How does [H+] compare to [OH-] in an acidic solution? How does [H+] compare to [OH-] in a basic solution?
> In general terms, what does the tertiary structure of a protein describe? Clearly distinguish between the secondary and tertiary structures.
> Which of the following solutions contains the greatest number of ions? a. 100.0 mL of 1.0 M sodium nitrate b. 100.0 mL of 1.0 M iron(III) nitrate c. 100.0 mL of 1.0 M copper(II) nitrate d. 100.0 mL of 1.0 M calcium nitrate e. All of the solutions ab
> In an open flask, 20.0 mL of an aqueous solution (density of solution = 1.103 g/mL) is combined with 13.5 g of a solid, and a chemical reaction takes place. One of the reaction products is 1.473 L of gas with density 5 1.798 g/L. What is the mass of the
> Rank the following species from lowest to highest boiling point: N2(l), Ne(l), BeO(l), CO(l)
> If 125 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid solution (density 1.84 g/mL, 98.3% H2SO4 by mass) is diluted to a final volume of 3.01 L, calculate the following information. a. the mass of pure H2SO4 in the 125-mL sample. b. the molarity of the concentrated a
> Calculate the volume (in milliliters) of each of the following acid solutions that would be required to neutralize 36.2 mL of 0.259 M NaOH solution. a. 0.271 M HCl b. 0.119 M H2SO4 c. 0.171 M H3PO4
> Chlorine gas, Cl2, can be generated in small quantities by addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid to manganese(IV) oxide. MnO2(s) + 4HCl(aq) / MnCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) + Cl2(g) The chlorine gas is bubbled through water to dissolve any traces of HCl remai
> Calculate the indicated quantity for each gas sample. a. The volume occupied by 1.15 g of helium gas at 25 °C and 1.01 atm pressure. b. The partial pressure of each gas if 2.27 g of H2 and 1.03 g of He are confined to a 5.00-L container at 0 °C. c. Th
> What is one equivalent of an acid? What does an equivalent of a base represent? How is the equivalent weight of an acid or a base related to the substance’s molar mass? Give an example of an acid and a base that have equivalent weights equal to their mol
> When a solution is diluted by adding additional solvent, the concentration of solute changes but the amount of solute present does not change. Explain. Suppose 250. mL of water is added to 125 mL of 0.551 M NaCl solution. Explain how you would calculate
> Define a saturated solution. Does saturated mean the same thing as saying the solution is concentrated? Explain. Why does a solute dissolve only to a particular extent in water? How does formation of a saturated solution represent an equilibrium?
> Without performing the actual calculations, determine to how many significant figures the results of the following calculations should be reported. c. 1.782 + 0.00035 + 2.11 d. (6.521)(5.338 + 2.11) e. 9 - 0.000017 f. (4.2005 * 2.7)(7.99118) g. (5.12
> Define a solution. Describe how an ionic solute such as NaCl dissolves in water to form a solution. How are the strong bonding forces in a crystal of ionic solute overcome? Why do the ions in a solution not attract each other so strongly as to reconstitu
> Define the bonding that exists in metals and how this model explains some of the unique physical properties of metals. What are metal alloys? Identify the two main types of alloys, and describe how their structures differ. Give several examples of each t
> Define a crystalline solid. Describe in detail some important types of crystalline solids and name a substance that is an example of each type of solid. Explain how the particles are held together in each type of solid (the interparticle forces that exis
> Why does the process of vaporization require an input of energy? Why is it so important that water has a large heat of vaporization? What is condensation? Explain how the processes of vaporization and condensation represent an equilibrium in a closed con
> Define London dispersion forces. Draw a picture showing how London forces arise. Are London forces relatively strong or relatively weak? Explain. Although London forces exist among all molecules, for what type of molecule are they the only major intermol
> What is a dipole–dipole attraction? How do the strengths of dipole–dipole forces compare with the strengths of typical covalent bonds? What is hydrogen bonding? What conditions are necessary for hydrogen bonding to exist in a substance or mixture? What e
> Are changes in state physical or chemical changes? Explain. What type of forces must be overcome to melt or vaporize a substance (are these forces intramolecular or intermolecular)? Define the molar heat of fusion and molar heat of vaporization. Why is t
> Define the normal boiling point of water. Why does a sample of boiling water remain at the same temperature until all the water has been boiled? Define the normal freezing point of water. Sketch a representation of a heating/cooling curve for water, mark
> Describe some of the physical properties of water. Why is water one of the most important substances on earth?
> In general, how do we envision the structures of solids and liquids? Explain how the densities and compressibilities of solids and liquids contrast with those properties of gaseous substances. How do we know that the structures of the solid and liquid st
> For each of the following, make the indicated conversion, showing explicitly the conversion factor(s) you used. a. 593.2 kg to grams b. 593.2 lbs to grams c. 8.312 km to miles d. 8.312 ft to miles e. 6.219 ft to meters f. 6.219 cm to meters g. 329
> What does “STP” stand for? What conditions correspond to STP? What is the volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas at STP?
> Without consulting your textbook, list and explain the main postulates of the kinetic molecular theory for gases. How do these postulates help us account for the following bulk properties of a gas: the pressure of the gas and why the pressure of the gas
> Dalton’s law of partial pressures concerns the properties of mixtures of gases. What is meant by the partial pressure of an individual gas in a mixture? How does the total pressure of a gaseous mixture depend on the partial pressures of the individual ga
> What do we mean specifically by an ideal gas? Explain why the ideal gas law (PV = nRT) is actually a combination of Boyle’s, Charles’s, and Avogadro’s gas laws. What is the numerical value and what are the specific units of the universal gas constant, R?
> What does Avogadro’s law tell us about the relationship between the volume of a sample of gas and the number of molecules the gas contains? Why must the temperature and pressure be held constant for valid comparisons using Avogadro’s law? Does Avogadro’s
> Explain how the concept of absolute zero came about through Charles’s studies of gases. Hint: What would happen to the volume of a gas sample at absolute zero (if the gas did not liquefy first)? What temperature scale is defined with its lowest point as
> What does Charles’s law tell us about how the volume of a gas sample varies as the temperature of the sample is changed? How does this volume–temperature relationship differ from the volume–pressure relationship of Boyle’s law? Give two mathematical expr
> When using Boyle’s law in solving problems in the textbook, you may have noticed that questions were often qualified by stating that “the temperature and amount of gas remain the same.” Why was this qualification necessary?
> Your textbook gives several definitions and formulas for Boyle’s law for gases. Write, in your own words, what this law really tells us about gases. Now write two mathematical expressions that describe Boyle’s law. Do these two expressions tell us differ
> What is the SI unit of pressure? What units of pressure are commonly used in the United States? Why are these common units more convenient to use than the SI unit? Describe a manometer and explain how such a device can be used to measure the pressure of
> How is the secondary structure of a protein related to its function in the body? Give examples.
> How does the pressure of the atmosphere arise? Sketch a representation of the device commonly used to measure the pressure of the atmosphere. Your textbook described a simple experiment to demonstrate the pressure of the atmosphere. Explain this experime
> What are some of the general properties of gases that distinguish them from liquids and solids?
> Describe a buffered solution. Give three examples of buffered solutions. For each of your examples, write equations and explain how the components of the buffered solution consume added strong acids or bases. Why is buffering of solutions in biological s
> The solubility product of magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, has the value Ksp = 6.82 * 10-6 at 25 0C. How many grams of MgCO3 will dissolve in 1.00 L of water?
> Calculate the pH and pOH values for each of the following solutions. a. 0.00562 M HClO4 b. 3.98 * 10-4 M KOH c. 0.078 M HNO3 d. 4.71 * 10-6 M Ca(OH)2
> For each of the following, calculate the indicated quantity. a. [OH-] = 2.11 * 10-4 M, [H+] =? b. [OH2] = 7.34 * 10-6 M, pH 5 ? c. [OH2] = 9.81 * 10-8 M, pOH 5 ? d. pH = 9.32, pOH =? e. [H+] = 5.87 * 10-11 M, pH =? f. pH = 5.83, [H+] =?
> Explain how dissolving a slightly soluble salt to form a saturated solution is an equilibrium process. Give three balanced chemical equations for solubility processes and write the expressions for Ksp corresponding to the reactions you have chosen. When
> In your own words, paraphrase Le Châtelier’s principle. Give an example (including a balanced chemical equation) of how each of the following changes can affect the position of equilibrium in favor of additional products for a system: the concentration o
> Compare homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. Give a balanced chemical equation and write the corresponding equilibrium constant expression as an example of each of these cases. How does the fact that an equilibrium is heterogeneous influence the exp
> Although the equilibrium constant for a given reaction always has the same value at the same temperature, the actual concentrations present at equilibrium may differ from one experiment to another. Explain. What do we mean by an equilibrium position? Is
> What is a mixture? What is a solution? How do mixtures differ from pure substances? What are some of the techniques by which mixtures can be resolved into their components?
> Describe how we write the equilibrium expression for a reaction. Give three examples of balanced chemical equations and the corresponding expressions for their equilibrium constants.
> Sketch a graph for the progress of a reaction illustrating the activation energy for the reaction. Define “activation energy.” Explain how an increase in temperature for a reaction affects the number of collisions that possess an energy greater than Ea.
> Explain the collision model for chemical reactions. What “collides”? Do all collisions result in the breaking of bonds and formation of products? Why? How does the collision model explain why higher concentrations and higher temperatures tend to make rea
> How is the pH scale defined? What range of pH values corresponds to acidic solutions? What range corresponds to basic solutions? Why is pH = 7.00 considered neutral? When the pH of a solution changes by one unit, by what factor does the hydrogen ion conc
> How is the strength of an acid related to the position of its ionization equilibrium? Write the equations for the dissociation (ionization) of HCl, HNO3, and HClO4 in water. Since all these acids are strong acids, what does this indicate about the basici
> Acetic acid is a weak acid in water. What does this indicate about the affinity of the acetate ion for protons compared to the affinity of water molecules for protons? If a solution of sodium acetate is dissolved in water, the solution is basic. Explain.
> Describe the relationship between a conjugate acid–base pair in the Brønsted–Lowry model. Write balanced chemical equations showing the following molecules/ions behaving as Brønsted– Lowry acids in water: HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4, NH4+. Write balanced chemical
> How are the Arrhenius and Brønsted–Lowry definitions of acids and bases similar, and how do these definitions differ? Could a substance be an Arrhenius acid but not a Brønsted– Lowry acid? Could a substance be a Brønsted–Lowry acid but not an Arrhenius a
> What is an element, and what is a compound? Give examples of each. What does it mean to say that a compound has a constant composition? Would samples of a particular compound here and in another part of the world have the same composition and properties?
> Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas react violently to form water. When this occurs, a very loud noise is heard. a. Draw the Lewis structures for hydrogen gas, oxygen gas, and water. b. State whether each molecule is polar or nonpolar and why. Explain how the p
> Draw the Lewis structure for each of the following molecules or ions. Indicate the number and spatial orientation of the electron pairs around the boldface atom in each formula. Predict the simple geometric structure of each molecule or ion, and indicate
> Based on the electron configuration of the simple ions that the following pairs of elements would be expected to form, predict the formula of the simple binary compound that would be formed by each pair. a. Al and Cl b. Na and N c. Mg and S d. Ca and
> Which of the following has the smallest ionization energy? a. Se2- b. Br- c. Sr2+ d. Zr4+ e. Rb+
> An unknown element is a nonmetal and has a valence electron configuration of ns2np4. a. How many valence electrons does this element have? b. Which of the following are possible identities for this element? Cl, S, Pb, Se, Cr c. What is the general for
> What do we mean by the geometric structure of a molecule? Draw the geometric structures of at least four simple molecules of your choosing and indicate the bond angles in the structures. Explain the main ideas of the valence shell electron pair repulsion
> Although many simple molecules fulfill the octet rule, some common molecules are exceptions to this rule. Give three examples of molecules whose Lewis structures are exceptions to the octet rule.
> What does a double bond between two atoms represent in terms of the number of electrons shared? What does a triple bond represent? When writing a Lewis structure, explain how we recognize when a molecule must contain double or triple bonds. What are reso
> For three simple molecules of your own choice, apply the rules for writing Lewis structures. Write your discussion as if you are explaining the method to someone who is not familiar with Lewis structures.
> In writing Lewis structures for molecules, what is meant by the duet rule? To which element does the duet rule apply? What do we mean by the octet rule? Why is attaining an octet of electrons important for an atom when it forms bonds to other atoms? What
> It is important to be able to distinguish between the physical and the chemical properties of chemical substances. Choose a chemical substance you are familiar with, then use the Internet or a handbook of chemical information to list three physical prope
> Why does a Lewis structure for a molecule show only the valence electrons? What is the most important factor for the formation of a stable compound? How do we use this requirement when writing Lewis structures?
> Give evidence that ionic bonds are very strong. Does an ionic substance contain discrete molecules? With what general type of structure do ionic compounds occur? Sketch a representation of a general structure for an ionic compound. Why is a cation always
> How is the attainment of a noble gas electron configuration important to our ideas of how atoms bond to each other? When atoms of a metal react with atoms of a nonmetal, what type of electron configurations do the resulting ions attain? Explain how the a
> What does it mean to say that a molecule has a dipole moment? What is the difference between a polar bond and a polar molecule (one that has a dipole moment)? Give an example of a molecule that has polar bonds and that has a dipole moment. Give an exampl
> What is meant by electronegativity? How is the difference in electronegativity between two bonded atoms related to the polarity of the bond? Using Fig. 12.3, give an example of a bond that would be nonpolar and of a bond that would be highly polar.
> In the formation of a polynucleotide (a short portion of the DNA molecule), which components (sugar, base, or phosphate) on adjacent nucleotides bond to each other?
> What do we mean by covalent bonding and polar covalent bonding? How are these two bonding types similar and how do they differ? What circumstance must exist for a bond to be purely covalent? How does a polar covalent bond differ from an ionic bond?
> What do we mean by ionic bonding? Give an example of a substance whose particles are held together by ionic bonding. What experimental evidence do we have for the existence of ionic bonding? In general, what types of substances react to produce compounds
> In general, what do we mean by a chemical bond? What does the bond energy tell us about the strength of a chemical bond? Name the principal types of chemical bonds.
> You have learned how the properties of the elements vary systematically, corresponding to the electron structures of the elements being considered. Discuss how the ionization energies and atomic sizes of elements vary, both within a vertical group (famil
> What is matter? What is matter composed of? What are some of the different types of matter? How do these types of matter differ, and how are they the same?
> What does the average atomic mass of an element represent? What unit is used for average atomic mass? Express the atomic mass unit in grams. Why is the average atomic mass for an element typically not a whole number?
> Peterson Foods manufactures pumpkin scones. For January 2015, it budgeted to purchase and use 16,000 kilograms of pumpkin at $1.11 per kilogram; budgeted output was 60,000 scones. Actual purchases and use for January 2015 were 17,000 kilograms at 0.99 pe
> Consider the following data collected for Blakes Construction Trailers: Required: Compute the rate, efficiency, and flexible-budget variances for direct materials and direct manufacturing labour. Direct Direct Manufacturing Materials Labour Costs i
> Connor Companyâ€™s budgeted prices for direct materials, direct manufacturing labour, and direct marketing (distribution) labour per attachÃ© case are $40, $8, and $12, respectively. The president is pleased with the following
> Brabham Enterprises manufactures tires for the Formula I motor racing circuit. For August 2015, it budgeted to manufacture and sell 3,000 tires at a variable cost of $74 per tire and total fixed costs of $54,000. The budgeted selling price was $110 per t
> A number of terms are listed below: Required: Select the terms from the above list to complete the following sentences. The question is whether or not the actual results met expectations, exceeded expectations or failed to meet expectations and a _____
> Your Mart (YM) has a Kaizen (continuous improvement) approach to budgeting activity area costs for each month of 2016. Each successive month, the budgeted cost driver rate decreases by 0.2% relative to the preceding month (so, for example, February’s bud
> The Parksville location of Your Mart (YM), a chain of small neighborhood grocery stores, is preparing its activity-based budget for January 2016. YM has three product categories: soft drinks, fresh produce, and packaged food. The following table shows th
> TabComp Inc. is a retail distributor for MZB-33 computer hardware and related software and support services. TabComp prepares annual sales forecasts of which the first six months for 2016 are presented here. Cash sales account for 25% of TabCompâ&#
> The All Frame Company makes and sells artistic frames for pictures of weddings, graduations, and other special events. Martin Flack, the company controller, is responsible for preparing the master budget and has accumulated the following information for
> The Suzuki Company in Japan has a division that manufactures two-wheel motorcycles. Its budgeted sales for Model G in 2016 are 985,000 units. Suzuki’s target ending inventory is 115,000 units, and its beginning inventory is 152,000 units. The company’s b
> What is the relevant range? What role does the relevant-range concept play in explaining how costs behave?
> Sheryl Blake, the owner of a small gift and souvenir shop, expects cash sales of $14,000 for October, $16,300 for November, and $21,100 for December. In addition, she expects credit card sales of $9,800 during October and $11,200 and $15,800, respectivel
> From its company-owned natural spring in northern Ontario, Fountain Springs Inc. bottles and distributes mineral water worldwide. Fountain Springs markets its product in 1-litre disposable plastic bottles and in 16-litre reusable plastic containers. Req
> In the preparation of the sales budget for the next three-month period, the Westing Company determined that 52,250 finished units would be needed to fulfill sales obligations. The company has an inventory of 27,300 units of finished goods on hand at Dece
> The wine-producing company Lebeau Vineyard expects to produce 2.1 million 3-litre bottles of Chablis in 2016. Lebeau purchases empty glass bottles from a reliable supplier. The target ending inventory of such bottles is 55,000; the beginning inventory is
> The Russell Company expects 2016 sales of 135,000 units of serving trays. Russell’s beginning inventory for 2016 is 9,700 trays; target ending inventory: 16,300 trays. Required: Compute the number of trays budgeted for production in 2016.
> In 2015, McGrath & Sons, a small environmental-testing firm, performed 11,000 radon tests for $250 each and 15,200 lead tests for $200 each. Because newer homes are being built with lead-free pipes, lead-testing volume is expected to decrease by 10% next
> Consider each of the following independent situations: 1. A very successful salesperson at Amcorp Computers regularly ignores the published sales catalogue and offers lowered prices to customers in order to close sales. The VP of sales notices that reven
> A number of terms are listed below: budget constraint(s) …………………………………..budgetary slack cash cycle …………………………………………………controllable cost investment budget ……………………………………..operating cycle rolling budget …………………………………….self-liquidating cycle Required: Sel
> Stanford Industries currently uses a normal job-costing system with a single overhead cost pool. It supplies parts to the aeronautic industry and, as a result, quality control is paramount. It currently applies the indirect costs of quality control on th
> Define direct costs and indirect costs .
> International Trust (IT) is examining the profitability of its Premier Account, a combined savings and chequing account. Depositors receive a 6% annual interest rate on their average deposit. IT earns an interest rate spread of 2.5% (the difference betwe
> PTech Ltd. manufactures two models of cordless phones. The Family Friend model has features designed for a multiple-user family, including the ability to have multiple ringtones and caller ID. The Office Assistant model is designed for use in home office